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Which of the following is false regarding how a differentiation strategy can help a firm to improve its competitive position vis à vis Porter's five forces? (A) By increasing a firm's margins, it avoids the need f...

Primary value chain activities that involve the effective layout of receiving dock operations (inbound logistics) and support value chain activities that include expertise in process engineering (technology developm...

Viruses and bacteria are the only infectious agents found in plants and animals. (A) True (B) False

HIV binds to the human white blood cell receptor protein CD4. (A) True (B) False

Some viruses enter the cell through endocytosis. (A) True (B) False

The HIV virus uses the host cell's reverse transcriptase to manufacture DNA. (A) True (B) False

New strains of influenza continually arise because the virus mutates and recombines the gene encoding the protein that makes it resistant to antibodies. (A) True (B) False

Viruses are more closely related to chemical matter than to a living organism. (A) True (B) False

Which of the following are not matched correctly: (A) Virulent virus-lytic cycle (B) Temperate virus-non-infecting virus (C) Lysogenic virus-genome becomes part of host genome (D) Lytic cycle-kills host cell...

Of the viruses listed below, the most lethal is (A) Influenza (B) Ebola (C) Measles (D) Herpes simplex (E) Epstein-Barr

When a virus kills the infected host cell in which it is replicating, the reproductive cycle is called a ________ cycle. (A) Lysogenic (B) Phagocytic (C) Lytic (D) Viroidal (E) Endocytic

The viral enzyme, _________, causes the host cell to synthesize a double strand of DNA complementary to the viral RNA. (A) Reverse transcriptase (B) Chemokinase (C) Virase (D) Replicase (E) Antiscriptase

In AIDS patients, the virus homes in on the _______________ T cells. (A) CD1+ (B) CD2+ (C) CD3+ (D) CD4+ (E) CD5+

Typically, viruses form _______________ around their nucleic acid. (A) An envelope (B) A cell wall (C) A capsid (D) A cell membrane (E) A capsule

Persons infected with HIV may not develop AIDS because the virus has the ________ gene. (A) CAF (B) gag (C) pol (D) nef (E) env

Which of the following is not a viral disease? (A) Mumps (B) Measles (C) Chicken pox (D) Rubella (E) Diphtheria

Viruses that cause lysis in host cells are called (A) Temperate viruses (B) Phagocytic viruses (C) Prions (D) Virulent viruses (E) Infectious viruses

__________ are small naked fragments of RNA that infect plant cells. (A) Prions (B) Nucleons (C) Prophages (D) Macrophages (E) Viroids

The only structural pattern that has been found among isometric viruses is (A) Icosahedral (B) Spherical (C) Helical (D) Tetrahedral (E) Capsular

Each HIV particle possesses a glycoprotein called __________ on its surface (A) CD4 (B) gp120 (C) CXCR4 (D) gp8 (E) nef

When a bacteriophage is integrated into a cellular genome it is called a (A) Virulent virus (B) Lytic virus (C) Prophage (D) Transducing virus (E) Microphage

The CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) is used to (A) Block the CCR5 receptor (B) Disable the CXCR4 receptor (C) Block replication of the HIV virus (D) Mutate the CCR5 and CXCR4 receptors

The genetic alteration of a cell's genome is called (A) Transformation (B) Reverse transcription (C) Genome conversion (D) Invasion

The separation of the Archaebacteria into a separate domain indicates (A) That these organisms are very different from eubacteria and from eukaryotes (B) That organisms should never be classified according to ho...

A cladogram conveys information about ancestors and descendants of an organism. (A) True (B) False

Biologists currently recognize three kingdoms: Plants, Animals, and Protists. (A) True (B) False

The scientific name is derived from the genus and species to which an organism belongs. (A) True (B) False

Polynomial classification has recently begun to replace the binomial system. (A) True (B) False

Cladistic taxonomy places the birds as Archosaurs, along with the: (A) Mammals (B) Crocodilians (C) Turtles (D) Snakes (E) None of the above

At the present time, scientists have named approximately ____ species. (A) 100,000 (B) 500,000 (C) 1,000,000 (D) 1,500,000 (E) 10,000,000

Which one of the following sequences shows the correct hierarchy of classification, going from the most inclusive to the least inclusive? (A) Kingdom, Domain, Phylum, Order, Class, Family, Genus, Species (B) Dom...

The binomial system of classification was developed by: (A) Darwin (B) Wallace (C) Linnaeus (D) Malthus (E) none of the above

Modern biologists prefer to perceive the phylogenetic tree of organisms as multibranched, rather than linear, with no particular species being "higher", or superior, to another. (A) True (B) False

A taxon consisting of the most closely related species is called a(n) ________________. (A) Family (B) Order (C) Genus (D) Phylum

Throughout the world, official species names are in (A) Latin (B) Greek (C) English (D) French (E) The native language

Multicellular organisms and unicellular yeasts are contained in (A) Animalia (B) Plantae (C) Protista (D) Fungi (E) Eubacteria

The oldest level of taxonomic classification is (A) Class (B) Family (C) Genus (D) Phylum (E) Species

Characteristics that have arisen as a result of common evolutionary descent are said to be (A) Analogous (B) Homogenous (C) Heterogamous (D) Homologous (E) Contiguous

In printing scientific names, it is conventional for only the _______________ to be underlined or italicized. (A) Binomial (B) Genus (C) Species (D) Division (E) Kingdom

In the early 1700's, the classification system used was (A) Polynomial (B) Pentanomial (C) Binomial (D) Tetranomial (E) Trinomial

In printed scientific names, only the _______________ is capitalized. (A) Family (B) Class (C) Species (D) Kingdom (E) Genus

In plant taxonomy, a division is the equivalent to _______________ . (A) Family (B) Order (C) Class (D) Phylum (E) Kingdom

In the current taxonomic system, families are grouped into (A) Vlasses (B) Phyla (C) Orders (D) Divisions (E) Kingdoms

When writing species epithets, it is sometimes permissible to abbreviate the _______________ name. (A) Species (B) Phylum (C) Order (D) Family (E) Genus

The plant alternation of generations is characterized by _______________ meiosis. (A) Zygotic (B) Somatic (C) Sporic (D) Generic (E) Gametic

A major problem with polynomial names was that they were (A) Inaccurate (B) Cumbersome (C) Not descriptive (D) In Latin (E) In Greek

Viruses are denied a kingdom of their own because (A) They are too poorly understood (B) They are too small (C) Their genetics cannot be determined (D) They are not organisms

The institution of the classification level of domain was prompted by (A) The overabundance of kingdoms (B) Cladistics (C) Great differences among bacteria (D) The taxonomic problem presented by viruses

As a practical definition of species, one can say that they are a group of organisms characterized by all of the following except they (A) Do not normally interbreed with other species in nature (B) Can be disti...

A group of organisms at any particular level in a classification system is called a (A) Species (B) Genus (C) Taxon (D) Phylum

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