Young children’s inclination to play with peers of the same sex
a.is mostly an American phenomenon.
b.becomes even more noticeable as children reach the end of the preschool years.
c.is unhealthy and should be discouraged.
d.can be permanently reversed through systematic reinforcement.
12. Gender identity often begins ____, when children accurately identify and label themselves and others as girls or boys.
a.when children start to talk, by the beginning of the second year of life
b.before their second birthdays
c.by age four
d.by age five to seven
13. Gender stability develops at about the same time as the concept of
14. A recent study of sexism in children’s books indicates that
a.most children’s books are not sex stereotyped, because there has been increasing sensitivity to sexism over the last several decades.
b.almost all children’s books contain sex stereotyping.
c.males appear far more often in children’s books than females, and females tend to be portrayed as passive and dependent.
d.because most children’s books are written by male authors, there is a tendency for males to play a more dominant role in books for young children.
15. Most young children recognize racial cues and show racial preference
a.before they are two.
b.by the age of four.
c.about the time they start kindergarten.
d.when they have reached the period of concrete operations.
16. In helping children learn about and appreciate other cultural groups, it is best to
a.point out the differences among people so that children will recognize the contrast between their own and other cultures.
b.focus on the shared experiences that people of all cultures have (for instance, the importance of food, clothing, shelter, special occasions, or family activities).
c.encourage children to recognize one “exotic” aspect of other cultures.
d.All of these answers.
17. Celebration of religious or cultural holidays should be
a.avoided at all costs if, for instance, children from non-Christian families who do not celebrate Christmas are enrolled in the program.
b.carried out, because people from other cultures who choose to enroll their children in your school will have to adapt to the customs of the majority.
c.carefully considered to take into account the needs, attitudes, and feelings of the children, families, and staff, and should focus on respect and understanding of cultural observances.
d.None of these answers.
18. Implementing an antibias curriculum means encouraging
b.acceptance of and respect for all cultural and racial groups.
c.understanding and acceptance of the handicapped.
d.All of these answers.
19. Children’s emerging sense of morality is affected by
a.the actions of the adults that children observe.
b.their cognitive maturation.
c.how they themselves are treated by others.
d.All of these answers.
20. The gradual learning and internalization of social standards of right and wrong is called
a.behavior modification.c.moral development.
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