Two approaches can be used for setting objectives – the top-down approach and the bottom-up approach. There is often a conflict among management theorists as to which is the better method. Which of the following is not true with respect to the top-down and bottom-up approaches?
(a) In the top-down approach, top-level managers determine objectives for subordinates to follow, while in the bottom-up approach, subordinates formulate objectives and present them to their superiors for approval
(b) As per supporters of the top-down approach, the organization needs clarity in direction by way of corporate objectives set by the CEO and the board of directors
(c) As per proponents of the bottom-up approach, top management should ascertain information from lower levels in the form of objectives
(d) Either approach alone is insufficient
(e) These approaches cannot be modified and there are hard and fast rules which indicate in which situation each approach should be used.
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