To maximize production and minimize pumping costs, crude oil is heated to reduce its viscosity during transportation from a production field.
(a) Consider a pipe-in-pipe configuration consisting of concentric steel tubes with an intervening insulating material. The inner tube is used to transport warm crude oil through cold ocean water. The inner steel pipe (ks = 35 W/m∙ K) has an inside diameter of Di,1 = 150 mm and wall thickness ti = 10 mm while the outer steel pipe has an inside diameter of Di,2 = 250 mm and wall thickness to = ti. Determine the maximum allowable crude oil temperature to ensure the polyurethane foam insulation (kp = 0.075 W/m∙ K) between the two pipes does not exceed its maximum service temperature of Tp,max = 70°C. The ocean water is at T∞,o = –5°C and provides an external convection heat transfer coefficient of ho = 500 W/m2 ∙ K. The convection coefficient associated with the flowing crude oil is hi = 450 W/m2 ∙ K.
(b) It is proposed to enhance the performance of the pipe-in-pipe device by replacing a thin (ta = 5 mm) section of polyurethane located at the outside of the inner pipe with an aerogel insulation material (ka = 0.012 W/m ∙ K). Determine the maximum allowable crude oil temperature to ensure maximum polyurethane temperatures are below Tp,max = 70°C.
In order to be useful to managers, management accounting reports should possess all of the following 1. characteristics except: a. provide objective measures of past op...Feb 11 2020
How might Kristen best explain her point of view to Matt while being true to her valuesMar 28 2020
Male police officers in one study in contrast to female officers had less concern abouta. work shiftsb. personal safetyc. transferd. di...Jan 11 2020
coupon income c. If you buy the bond today and hold it to maturity, your return will be yield to b. The yield to maturty l maturity The relationship between price and yie...Aug 30 2020
Exports pay for imports. Yet in 2002 the nations of the world exported abut $436 billion more worth of goods and services to the United States than they imported from the...Jun 15 2018
Bridle Inc. issues $300,000, 10-year, 8% bonds at 98. Prepare the journal entry to record the sale of these bonds on March 1, 2017.May 09 2020
An investment project has annual cash inflows of $4,500, $3,800, $5,000, and $4,200, and a discount rate of 15 percent. What is the discounted payback period for these ca...Aug 31 2020
2. A clothing chain is considering two different locations for a new retail outlet- Barclay and Chester. They haveidentified the four factors listed in the following tabl...Jul 24 2020
jensen company reports the following $45,000 Cost of materials used Direct labor costs 48,000 Factory overhead 39,000 Work in process, 18,000 beg. 28,000 Work in proces...Apr 01 2020
LLIURE China and Japan in Iron Ore Negotiation 1. Introduction At the international iron ore market, the three major suppliers (the big three), Brazil's Vale do Rio Doce ...Apr 05 2021