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The following volumes of a standard 10.0 ppb F solution were added to four 10.00-mLaliquots of a water sample: 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, and 3.00 mL. Precisely 5.00 mL of a solution containing an excess of the strongly absorbing AI-acid alizarin garnet R complex was added to each of the four solutions, and they were each diluted to 50.0 mL. The fluorescence intensities of the four solutions were as follows:
(a) Explain the chemistry of the analytical method.
(b) Construct a plot of the data.
(c) Use the fact that the fluorescence decreases with increasing amounts of the F^{-} standard to derive a relationship like Equation 1-3 for multiple standard additions. Use that relationship further to obtain an equation for the unknown concentration c_{x }in terms of the slope and intercept of the standard additions plot, similar to Equcation 1-4.
(d) Use linear least squares to find the equation for the line representing the decrease in fluorescence relative to the volume of standard fluoride V_{s}.
(e) Calculate the standard deviation of the slope and intercept.
(f) Calculate the concentration of F^{-} in the sample in parts per billion.
(g) Calculate the standard deviation of the result in (e).
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