In the lumen of the proximal tubule, Na+ concentration ________ the Na+ concentration inside the cells of the tubule wall.
A) is much higher than
B) is slightly higher than
C) is about the same as
D) is slightly lower than
E) is much lower than
58) The typical pattern for molecules absorbed by Na+-dependent transport involves this: an apical ________ and a basolateral ________.
A) facilitated diffusion carrier, osmotic gradient
B) symport protein, facilitated diffusion carrier
C) symport protein, osmotic gradient
D) osmotic gradient, symport protein
E) facilitated diffusion carrier, symport protein
59) One substance has no membrane transporters to move it but can diffuse freely through open leak channels if there is a concentration gradient. Initially, this substance's concentrations in the filtrate and extracellular fluid are equal. Later, however, the active transport of Na+ and other solutes creates a gradient by removing water from the lumen of the tubule where it is located. What substance is this?
D) glucose and calcium
E) glucose, calcium, and urea
60) Measurements in a nephron reveal a glomerular hydraulic pressure of 69 mm Hg, and a fluid pressure in the Bowman's capsule of 15 mm Hg. Assuming that the plasma osmotic pressure is 30 mm Hg, and that essentially no plasma proteins are filtered by the glomerulus, what is the net glomerular filtration pressure in this case?
A) -6 mm Hg
B) 24 mm Hg
C) 54 mm Hg
D) 84 mm Hg
E) 114 mm Hg
61) In a normal kidney, which of the following conditions would cause an increase in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
A) constriction of the afferent arteriole
B) a decrease in the hydraulic pressure of the glomerulus
C) an increase in the capsular hydraulic pressure
D) a decrease in the concentration of plasma proteins in the blood
E) a decrease in the net glomerular filtration pressure
62) A person with cirrhosis of the liver has lower than normal levels of plasma proteins and a higher than normal GFR. Explain why a decrease in plasma protein concentration would cause an increase in GFR.
63) Patrick's urine sample reveals a high concentration of glucose. Is glucose normally present in urine? Suggest two possible mechanisms to explain why the kidney would excrete excess glucose, and what abnormality may underlie those conditions.
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