Differentiate between an operating system and an application program.
8) List the four major operating systems and their usages.
a. For business users, the most important operating system is Microsoft Windows. Some version of Windows resides on more than 85 percent of the world's desktops, and considering just business users, the figure is more than 95 percent. Microsoft offers many different versions of Windows; Windows XP and Vista are current client versions. Windows Server 2008 is the current server version.
b. Apple Computer, Inc., developed its own operating system for the Macintosh, Mac OS. The current system is named Mac OS X. Macintosh computers are used primarily by graphic artists and workers in the arts community.
c. Unix is an operating system that was developed at Bell Labs in the 1970s. It has been the workhorse of the scientific and engineering communities since then. Unix is generally regarded as being more difficult to use than either Windows or the Macintosh.
d. Linux is a version of Unix that was developed by the open-source community. This community is a loosely coupled group of programmers who mostly volunteer their time to contribute code to develop and maintain Linux. The open-source community owns Linux, and there is no fee to use it. Linux can run on client computers, but it is most frequently used on servers, particularly Web servers.
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