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Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than one place or location

Data redundancy is the presence of duplicate data in multiple data files so that the same data are stored in more than one place or location.

12) Data inconsistency is where the same attribute may have different values.

13) Program-data independence refers to the coupling of data stored in files and the specific programs required to update and maintain those files so that changes in programs require changes to the data.

14) A traditional file system can deliver routine scheduled reports after extensive programming efforts; it can also deliver ad hoc reports or respond to unanticipated information requirements in a timely fashion.

15) A more rigorous definition of a database is a collection of data organized to serve many applications efficiently by centralizing the data and controlling redundant data.

16) A DBMS reduces data redundancy and inconsistency by maximizing isolated files in which the same data are repeated.

17) Microsoft Access is a relational DBMS for desktop systems.

18) Microsoft SQL Server are relational DBMS for large mainframes and mid-range computers.

19) Oracle Database Lite is a DBMS for small, handheld computing devices.

20) Rows are commonly referred to as records or, in technical terms, as tulips.

Jan 27 2020 View more View Less

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