A term paper on a topic concerning the analysis of treatment research of neurological disease and/or impairment OR a paper regarding a neurological deficit is required in this course. Your topic must discuss how it relates to physical therapy. The paper should adhere to certain scientific editorial style guidelines. The writing style must be clear, concise, and grammatical, and the work that you turn in must be your own. You may select a topic from the list provided, or choose your own, but please ensure your topic is approved by the instructor before you begin. A timetable of important dates is included. This paper conforms to the guidelines that you should follow; use it as an example.As stated on the course syllabus, a term paper is required in this course. The purpose is to allow you to take a more in-depth approach to some area of neuroscience than is possible in the context of class time. This handout provides information regarding format, style, and other mechanical aspects of the paper, as well as some suggested topics.FormatScientific writing usually follows a strict stylistic format. This allows the reader to focus on the content of the paper rather than on how the material is presented. Your paper is no exception. 1. Type all parts of the manuscript (body of the paper) double-spaced, using Times New Roman 12-point font and 1 inch margins. Use only one side of the paper. Do not right-justify the text.2. In the top left corner of every page provide a running head (the title of your paper, not to exceed 12 words). The page number should appear in the upper or lower right corner of each page.3. Page 1 should be a numbered title page, giving the title (no more than 12 words), authors name, and authors affiliation. Author Note, if necessary, appears below the authors affiliation.4. Page 2 should consist of an abstract providing a brief overview of your paper. It should be labeled Abstract, and should not exceed 250 words. The abstract should be size 11-point font, single space, non-indented paragraph.5. The body of the paper follows, beginning on Page 3. The body needs be at least 4 pages. As this is not a research report, there is no need for sections such as Method, Results, etc. The text can be one uninterrupted section, or can be broken down into subsections, as you deem necessary.6. Citations of source material in the body of the text should take the form of either: the name(s) of the author(s) followed by the date of the publication, in parenthesis OR the number in brackets (example  designating reference 2 from your reference sheet).
7. Following the body of the text, and starting on a separate page, come the References. This is not a bibliography. It should contain only those papers to which you refer in the body of the text, not everything you have read. Arrange the references alphabetically by first authors last name, and chronologically when two or more papers have the same authors in the same order. Be sure to include all of the papers that you cite. Accuracy in citing your references is crucial! You must include at least 3 reputable references.NOTE: This deviates from typical term paper style, but you must provide a photocopy of the first page of every paper that you cite. This provides some assurance that you had the opportunity to read the papers, rather than relying on someone elses description of the research (see discussion of primary sources, below). There is an automatic loss of points from the total value of the paper for each instance in which a photocopy is not provided. Please append the photocopies to the end of the paper.Your grade will reflect in part the degree to which you comply with the above guidelines.Writing StyleScientific writing requires clarity and accuracy. Please write grammatically; do not include sentence fragments, verbs that do not agree with their subjects, dangling participles, or split infinitives. If you need assistance with your writing, contact any grammar or composition text.Do not right justify your entire essay and do not automatically format hyphens if you are using a word processor to type your essay. Left justify or justify your essay and type in the hyphens yourself where needed.Titles of Books, Magazines, Newspapers, or JournalsWhen used within the text of your paper, titles of all full-length works such as novels, plays, books, should be underlined, e.g. Shakespeare’s Theater.Put in quotation marks titles of shorter works, such as newspaper, journal, and magazine articles, chapters of books, or essays, e.g.: “Giving Back to the Earth: Western Helps Make a Difference in India.”For all title citations, every word, except articles (“a”, “an”, “the”), prepositions (such as “in”, “on”, “under”, “over”), and conjunctions (such as “and”, “because”, “but”, “however”), should be capitalized, unless they occur at the beginning of the title or subtitle, e.g.: “And Now for Something Completely Different: A Hedgehog Hospital.”Look it up in a dictionary whenever you are not sure whether a word is being used as a preposition, a conjunction, a noun, a verb, or an adverb. The word “near”, for instance, may be an adverb, an adjective, a verb, or a preposition depending on the context in which it is used.For complicated details on how to cite titles and quotations within titles, sacred texts, shortened titles, exceptions to the rule, etc. please consult the MLA Handbook (102-109).
Appropriate ReferencesPlease realize that you are writing an academic paper, and as such must rely on academic references. This means that the papers to which you refer should appear in scientific journals such as Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association, Advance for Physical Therapists and Physical Therapist Assistants, The American Journal of Sports Rehabilitation, The American Journal of Sports Rehabilitation, Journal of Neurophysiology, or Journal of Neuroscience, British Medical Journal, Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), New England Journal of Medicine (there are many others). These are all refereed journals, meaning that papers are reviewed by others knowledgeable in the field before they are published. They are also primary sources, meaning that the papers, you read in these journals are written by the scientists who did the research leading to the papers. All of your references should be primary sources, and most should be drawn from referred journals (although books or book chapters that are primary works are also acceptable).Magazines such as Scientific American or Newsweek are usually not appropriate as references in a scientific paper. Your textbook is also inappropriate. These works are secondary, not primary, sources; they report experiments that were done by others. However, such sources are often good leads, suggesting avenues of investigation into the scientific literature. If Newsweek or your textbookdescribes Dr. Smiths work on drugs that reduce fear, do not cite Newsweek or the text. Instead, find Dr. Smiths work in scientific journals.If you retrieve articles electronically, you must have access to the entire article, not the abstract alone. In the case of electronically accessed articles, you must provide with your paper the page containing the title and citation information, and at least one page of text indicating that the actual text of the article, rather than simply the abstract, was available to you. For articles that you accessed electronically, be sure to provide the URL or other information that specifies the on- line source at the end of the items listing in the References.The most important reason for citing the primary source is accuracy. Relying on a secondary source means accepting someone elses interpretation of the original work. Often this is fine, but equally often you will discover that the author of the secondary source is biased or inaccurate in his or her interpretation. Thus, your understanding of the original experiment will also be inaccurate or biased.ReferencesAmerican Physical Therapy Journal. (2010). Journal of the American Physical Therapy Association (6th ed.). Arlington, VA: Author.Authorone, A. B. (1968). Paper by a single author in a journal. Name of the Journal: Italicized and Capitalized,21, 142157.Authorone, A. B., & Authortwo, C. D. (1984). Chapter by two authors in a book. In E. F. Bookeditor (Ed.), Name of the book: Italicized but not all capitalized (pp. 123-178). Albion, MI: Name of Publisher.Firstauthor, G. H., Secondauthor, I. J., Thirdauthor, K. L., & Fourthauthor, M. N. (1982). Journal article written by several authors. Name of the Journal: Italicized and Capitalized, 87, 734-746.Guralnik, D. B. (Ed.). (1970). Websters new world dictionary of the American language. New York: World.Hacker, D. (1998). The Bedford handbook (5th ed.). Boston: Bed- ford.Strunk, W., Jr., & White, E. B. (1979). The elements of style (3rd ed.). New York: Macmillan.
Putting it all Together Sheets of paper should be stapled at the upper left-hand corner. Use a paper clip if no stapler is available. Do not use a pin or fold the paper. Unless specifically requested by your teacher, do not hand in your paper in a folder, a binder, a plastic jacket, rolled up with an elastic band around it, or tied with a ribbon or a string. Do not spray perfume or cologne on your paper or use scented paper. And NEVER hand in your research or term paper in loose sheets even if the sheets are numbered and neatly placed in an envelope or folder.The condition of the paper you hand in is an indication of the respect you have for yourself and the respect you have for your teacher. Before handing in your paper, ask yourself, “Is this the VERY BEST that I can do?”Academic HonestyIt is unfortunate that this section must be included, but experience suggests that it is necessary.The work that you turn in must be your own. It is acceptable, in fact it is essential, that your paper be based on the work of other people; their contributions must be acknowledged. It is appropriate to read a paper, take notes on it in your own words, and refer to the findings of that paper in your own words, with proper citation, when you write your paper. It is entirely inappropriate to quote directly without citation, or even to paraphrase with or without citation. I would much rather talk with you about these matters before you turn in a paper than afterwards.Time Table1. By day 8 of this course: You must notify your instructor of the topic of your choice for this term paper.2. By day 12 of this course: Provide at least one reference that you expect to use in writing the paper AND a rough draft of the abstract. This is worth 10% of the value of the paper. This is due at the start of class.3. By day 16 of this course: Turn in a rough printed draft of the paper for comment at the start of class.4. By day 19 of this course: Final version of the paper must be handed in at the start of class. Late papers will receive a deduction from the final score. See rubric for details.Suggested TopicsYour paper may address any topic concerning the nervous system. You may choose one of the suggested topics below or come up with your own – either way, you must notify your instructor of the topic you choice.
1. Examine drugs that are supposed to enhance learning or memory. Do you think they work, and if so, how?
2. Discuss the mechanism(s) of reuptake of neurotransmitters.
3. Where does the initiation of movement occur in the brain?
4. Discuss how the neurotransmitter defects seen in Alzheimers disease might contribute to dementia.
5. What neural mechanisms are involved in attention?
6. Is a balance between serotonin and norepinephrine (and perhaps other neurotransmitters) necessary to emotional and physical health?
7. Discuss the evolution of neurotransmission.
8. What role does the cerebellum play in motor control?
9. Address the role of a neurotransmitter or brain area in the etiology and/or treatment of Parkinsons Disease.
10. Discuss the basal ganglia and its role in motor control.
11. Compare the roles of dopamine and the endorphins.
12. Discuss the functional significance of a single axon terminal releasing multiple neurotransmitters.
13. Physical therapy treatments for lumbar radicular pain.
14. Discuss physical therapy treatments for people with cerebral palsy and extensor tone.
15. Discuss the effects of vestibular rehabilitation on patients.
16. Expected outcomes of supported treadmill stepping following spinal cord injury.
17. Discuss physical therapy management of stroke patients in the acute setting.
18. What are the effects of functional electrical stimulation on post-stroke gait.
19. Discuss balance issues and treatment strategies for falls in the geriatric population.
20. Address the etiology and physical therapy treatments for multiple sclerosis.
21. Discuss appropriate and effective stretching techniques for contracture in neurological conditions.
22. Discuss functional gait assessment and balance evaluation systems in individuals with CVA (or TBI, or MS, or SCI, etc.)
23. Discuss the progression of ALS and effective patient and family education strategies for these patients.
24. Compare a variety of locomotor training approaches for patients with chronic SCI.
25. Discuss the effectiveness of robotic applied resistance during gait training for patients post SCI.
26. Discuss the Glascow Coma Scale OR the Rancho Los Amigos Scale in detail, including its reliability and validity.
27. Discuss physical therapy strategies to improve motor function in a neurologically involved patient.
28. Compare and contrast cognitive issues in patients with senile dementia, Alzheimers Dementia, and Parkinsons Dementia.
29. Discuss different strategies to enhance motor learning in a neurologically involved patient.
30. Compare and contrast different theories of motor control.
31. Discuss strategies to prepare for locomotor training in the non-ambulatory neuro pt.
32. Discuss the epidemiology and etiology of stroke.
33. Discuss Evidence Based Practice for a neurological patient with CVA (or other d/o)
34. Discuss strategies to improve sensory function.
35. Discuss strategies to improve left neglect.
36. Discuss strategies to decrease spasticity in the CP patient.
37. Discuss prevention, health promotion, fitness, and wellness with the patient post TBI.
38. Discuss physical therapy interventions for patients with TBI in the acute care setting.
39. Discuss the clinical manifestations and physical therapy treatment options for patients with spinal shock, OR autonomic dysreflexia, or post cauda equina syndrome
40. Discuss cognitive and perceptual dysfunctions in patients and effective treatment approaches used in the rehab setting.
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