In international business, a relatively high level of fixed costs can make it economical to perform a particular activity in several locations at once.
12.The concept of economies of scale tells us that as plant output expands, unit costs decrease.
13.The level of output at which most plant-level scale economies are exhausted is referred to as the minimum efficient scale of output.
14.In terms of minimum efficient scale of output, the "unit cost curve" rises with output until a certain output level is reached, at which point further increases in output realize little reduction in unit costs.
15.A wide product variety makes it easier for a firm to increase its production efficiency and thus reduce its unit costs.
16.Flexible manufacturing technologies allow a company to produce a wider variety of end products at a unit cost that at one time could be achieved only through the mass production of a standardized output.
17.Flexible machine cells, a flexible manufacturing technology, cannot be used for mass customization.
18.With the advent of flexible manufacturing technologies and mass customization, manufacturing in each major market in which the firm is active is becoming less attractive.
19.When flexible manufacturing technologies are not available, a firm can manufacture products customized to various national markets at a single factory sited at the optimal location.
20.Industrial products have few national differences in consumer taste and preference, hence the need for local responsiveness is reduced for such products.
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