In contrast to the US, most European countries have labor relations that are based on _____.
a.politics and social class distinctions (page 216-217, moderate)
b.the concept that government has no legitimate right to interfere in the freely undertaken negotiations between workers and managers
c.the relative newness and lack of familiarity of concepts such as unions and collective bargaining
d.all of the above
e.none of the above
43.Unions in _____ are often organized and controlled by their own companies, are restrained in negotiations, and rarely strike.
b.Japan (page 217, easy)
44.Labor relations in _____ are based on a close relationship between unions and government, and the need to codify worker rights and benefits in law.
d.Latin America (page 217, moderate)
45.What do the PM and NT theories of leadership have in common?
a.Both were developed in Latin America.
b.Both use two dimensions, as do many other leadership theories. (page 218, easy)
c.Neither takes culture into consideration.
d.They both assume that the culture is highly individualistic and low in power distance.
46.In the PM leadership theory, the “P” represents _____, and the “M” represents _____.
c.performance; maintenance (page 217, moderate)
47.The _____ leadership theory found a preference for a distinctive type of paternalistic leadership, and this has been supported by some research in highly collectivist cultures.
a.nurturance-task (page 218, difficult)
48.Weber identified _____ authority as that which rests on a belief in the legality of patterns of normative rules and the right of those elevated to authority under such rules to issue commands.
c.rational (page 219, easy)
49.Weber said _____ authority occurs infrequently, and reflects the followers’ intense conviction that the leader possesses special gifts or talents.
d.charismatic (page 219, easy)
50.Even in societies with another dominant form, the _____ form of authority still may be common in family-owned-and-operated businesses.
a.traditional (page 219, easy)
51.Creating _____ is an especially important element of charismatic and transformational leadership.
c.symbolic meaning (page 220, moderate)
d.opportunities for interaction between leaders and followers
52.The authors quote Peter Drucker as saying that “the overseas Chinese run their _____”.
a.families like a business (page 221, moderate)
b.businesses like a family
c.families like a meritocracy
d.businesses like a bureaucracy
53.All of the following are common characteristics of French Administrative Leadership, except _____.
a.conformity with rules and regulations
b.unequal distribution of power
c.low individualism (page 222, moderate)
d.relatively more layers of hierarchy and more lateral differentiation
54.The research on leadership known as Project GLOBE _____.
a.identified cultures on the basis of their relative standing on each of nine core dimensions (page 223, difficult)
b.collected data from a relatively small sample of managers and organizations
c.identified two basic, behavioral dimensions of leadership
d.found that most of the time, actual organizational practices conform closely to what people in those organizations consider culturally desirable
55.For Project GLOBE, England was in the _____ cluster, and China was in the _____ cluster.
a.Nordic Europe; Southern Asia
b.Germanic Europe; Confucian Asia
c.Anglo; Confucian Asia (page 225, easy)
d.Western Europe; Southern Asia
56.A finding from Project GLOBE that relates especially to women was that most country clusters have relatively _____.
a.high scores on individualism
b.low scores on uncertainty avoidance
c.low scores on gender egalitarianism (page 228, easy)
d.high scores on power distance
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