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Computers typically do not implement integer subtraction directly but instead using addition and negation To accomplish negation they often use the

Computers typically do not implement integer subtraction directly, but instead using addition and negation.

To accomplish negation, they often use the formula −x = (x ˆ 11 . . . 1) + 1, which can be 3 implemented using bitwise XOR and addition.

The string 11 . . . 1 here represents the all 1’s string of length n, where n is the width of the CPU.

The addition is done modulo 2n. Verify that −x ≡ (x ˆ 11 . . . 1) + 1 (mod 2n) for n = 4 and x = 3. Show your work

May 27 2020 Read more Less More

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