Calculations and Interpretations: Answer the following questions in the space provided. Show all of your work.
1. Evidence of an increased risk of lung cancer associated with cigarette smoking was sought by Doll and Hill. In one study, 649 lung cancer cases were matched by age, and gender to 649 controls; 647 of the cases and 622 of the control had a history of smoking cigarettes.
a. Name the type of study.
b. Create the appropriate 2X2 table for the study. (2 points)
Lung Cancer Controls
Smokers 647 622
Nonsmokers 2 27
Total 649 649
c. Calculate the appropriate measure of association for the study. (4 points)
d. Interpret the results. (2 points)
2. In another study, the smoking habits of 34,445 male physicians were obtained by mailed questionnaires. Deaths among these physicians over the subsequent years were identified though contact with the office of the Registrar General. The death rates from lung cancer of these physicians classified by smoking habits were :
Standardized Death Rates per 1000 Persons Aged 35 or More per Year
Cigarette Smokers 0.96
a. Name the type of study. (2 points)
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